Where the agreement is a collective CFA, there is an additional requirement that advocacy or litigation services were provided to the party in connection with the specific claim before 1 April 2013. As Lord Justice Jackson identified, the effect of the previous arrangements was that claimants (who are the predominant users of such arrangements, though in theory they can be used by both claimants and defendants) could litigate "risk-free" at huge cost to losing defendants.
A provision found in many (although not all) claims-made policies that eliminates coverage for claims produced by wrongful acts that took place prior to a specified date, even if the claim is first made during the policy period.
(‘the Directive’) extends the protection against sex discrimination beyond the traditional realm of the labour market to the areas of access to and supply of goods and services.
This implements the obligation of equal treatment in most economic day-to-day transactions affecting the lives of citizens in the EU. The provision had permitted the use of sex-based actuarial factors in insurance contracts.
All Member States provided the Commission with information contributing to the report.
This is especially necessary to ensure that consumer opt-outs are effective since the ability of financial institutions to share nonpublic personally identifiable information with their affiliates is not limited in any way under the GLBA. There are many insurance agents who are also registered brokers. Specifically, the SEC needs to make clear that it is not attempting to regulate the sharing of health related information, and, moreover, that the GLBA will not modify, limit, or supersede the HIPAA regulatory regime that is being established to regulate health information.For example, a January 1, 2010, retroactive date in a policy written with a January 1, 2010-2011, term, would bar coverage for claims resulting from wrongful acts that took place prior to January 1, 2010, even if claims (resulting from such acts) are made against the insured during the January 1, 2010-2011, policy period.There are two purposes of retroactive dates: (1) to eliminate coverage for situations or incidents known to insureds that have the potential to give rise to claims in the future and (2) to preclude coverage for "stale" claims that arise from events far in the past, even if such events are unknown to the insured.As recommended by Lord Justice Jackson, that is no longer the case for CFAs entered into and ATE policies taken out on or after 1 April 2013. These changes were implemented by section 44 and section 46 of the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 (LASPO) which amend the relevant sections of the Courts and Legal Services Act 1990. The previous rules continue to apply to CFAs entered into and ATE policies taken out before 1 April 2013.There are provisions to prevent parties having circumvented the changes by entering into a collective CFA, relating to a class of proceedings rather than a specific claim, before the cut-off date.